Glossary

a
Acceptable namesearch for term

A name that complies with the requirements of the appropriate nomenclatural code, = code-compliant.

ALAsearch for term

Logo from Atlas of Living Australia website.Atlas of Living Australia: A large project in Australia that will form the infrastructure to improve exchange, collaboration and other forms of interoperability among Australian government departments and organizations with interests in biodiversity.

Synonyms: Atlas of Living Australia
Ambiregnalsearch for term

bluegreen1Organisms which may be subject to more than one code of nomenclature. Examples include (but are not limited to) the cyanobacteria (left) which, while bacteria and therefore logically subject to the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, are studied by the same community as studies eukaryotic algae and who apply the Code of Botanical Nomenclature; to organisms that have been treated as protozoa (and to which ICZN has been applied) and as algae (to which the ICBN has been applied – such as dinoflagellates, euglenids, chrysophytes; or organisms whose perceived affinities have greatly changed as a result of new knowledge (a good example being the microsporidia, once regarded as type of protozoon and therefore subject to ICZN, but which are a much modified type of fungus and to which ISBN applies. Such cross-code taxa present an array of special problems, in some cases having more than one legitimate name.

Appearancesearch for term

The occurrence of a name in a document.

Atlas of Living Australiasearch for term

ALA logoALA:  A large project in Australia that will form the infrastructure to improve exchange, collaboration and other forms of interoperability among Australian government departments and organizations with interests in biodiversity.

Synonyms: ALA
Authorsearch for term

 The person or team who introduced a name (a code-compliant scientific name) into the literature. The author’s name follows the scientific name, with or without a date. When a species is moved from one genus to another, the author of the original species name is usually placed in parentheses, and this is then followed by the names of the authors of the new combination. In the following example, Linnaeus introduced the name Gerardia purpurea, and he is still included, in parentheses, in the combination created by Pennell.False foxglove: Purple false foxglove, Agalinis purpurea. Image by Robert H. Mohlenbrock. Courtesy of USDA NRCS Wetland Science Institute.

  • Gerardia purpurea Linnaeus
  • Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell 
  • There are conventions in some areas to standardize the abbreviation of author’s names; for plants - Brummitt & Powell 1992, Authors of Plant Names. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; www.kew.org/data/authors.html); and for fungi - Kirk & Ansell 1992, Authors of Fungal Names. Wallingford: CAB International; www. indexfungorum.org/names/.

    The author of a name is usually the author of the document in which the name first appears, but sometimes, pme person (Jones) may have written the document, but someone else (Smith) created the name (Vanilla).  In such a case the name will be Vanilla Smith ex Jones.  Author may also be referred to as authority.

    Synonyms: Authority
    Authoritysearch for term

    The person or team who introduced a name (a code-compliant scientific name) into the literature. The author’s name follows the scientific name, with or without a date. When a species is moved from one genus to another, the author of the original species name is usually placed in parentheses, and this is then followed by the names of the authors of the new combination.

    • Gerardia purpurea Linnaeus
    • Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell

    There are conventions in some area to standardize the abbreviation of author’s names: - for plants - Brummitt & Powell 1992, Authors of Plant Names. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; www.kew.org/data/authors.html) - for fungi - Kirk & Ansell 1992, Authors of Fungal Names. Wallingford: CAB International; www. indexfungorum.org/names/.

    Authority may also be referred to as author.

    Synonyms: Author
    Available namesearch for term

    A scientific name that complies with the provisions of the code; the term is used in the context of the zoological code, botanists use ‘validly published’ for this.

    b
    Basionymsearch for term

    Refers to the relationship between the first species binomen to include a particular species epithet, and a subsequent combination  â€“ an example might be that Gerardia purpurea Linnaeus is the basionym of Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell. Protonym is refers to the first appearance of a name.

    Binomial nomenclaturesearch for term

    Refers to the use of two parts, a genus name and a species epithet, for a species.

    Biocodesearch for term

    A code that was intended to apply to all types of organisms, and so overcoming some of the problems that arise for the existence of independent codes for animals, plants, bacteria, etc. The idea never gained sufficient traction and is now probably replaceable with appropriate informatics tools that provide taxon-specific interface into a common nomenclatural environment, with each taxonomic domain having its own rules that need to be complied with. The biocode was published as: Greuter W; Hawksworth DL; McNeill J; Mayo MA; Minelli A; Sneath PHA; Tindall BJ; Trehane P; Tubbs P (eds) (1998) Draft BioCode (1997): the prospective international rules for the scientific names of organisms. Taxon 47: 127-150.

    Biodiversity Information Standardssearch for term

    BIS TDWG icon from http://www.tdwg.org/,BIS, the new name for an organization that was referred to as TadWig (Taxonomic DataBases Working Group) – the source of many initial standards for biodiversity information transfer. They are http://www.tdwg.org/, where they tell us that their mission is to:

    • Develop, adopt and promote standards and guidelines for the recording and exchange of data about organisms
    • Promote the use of standards through the most appropriate and effective means and
    • Act as a forum for discussion through holding meetings and through publications
    Synonyms: BIS, Taxonomic DataBases Working Group, TDWG
    BISsearch for term

    This stands for Biodiversity Information Standards, the new name for an organization that was referred to as TadWig (Taxonomic DataBases Working Group) – the source of many initial standards for biodiversity information transfer. They are http://www.tdwg.org/, where they tell us that their mission is to:

    • Develop, adopt and promote standards and guidelines for the recording and exchange of data about organisms
    • Promote the use of standards through the most appropriate and effective means and
    • Act as a forum for discussion through holding meetings and through publications
    c
    Candidatesearch for term

    A term in nomenclature, used mostly by bacteriologists and virologists, to refer to taxa that have not yet met all of the requirements of the prevailing code of nomenclature. Typically the term is written out: Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique.

    Candidatussearch for term

    A term in nomenclature, used mostly by bacteriologists and virologists, to refer to taxa that have not yet met all of the requirements of the prevailing code of nomenclature. Typically the term is written out: Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique.

    Canonical namesearch for term

    A version of a scientific name that contains complete versions of the latin words, but lacks insertions of subtaxa, annotations, or authority information.

    Namestring: Grevillea glauca Banks & Sol. ex Knight’
    Canonical name: Grevillea glauca

    Catalogue of Life Partnershipsearch for term

    CoLP: a project involving Species2000 and ITIS, building a comprehensive catalog of the species of Earth. Just a little over half-way there. http://www.catalogueoflife.org/

    Chresonymsearch for term

    A reference to the use of a name. The sperm whale Physeter catodon was first formally described by Linnaeus in the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae, so the correct name with authority information is Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 (or variants thereof). Physeter catodon, Harmer, 1928 on the other hand refers to the use of the name by Harmer. Chresonyms are very similar in appearance to the scientific name plus authority, but in many cases are distinguished by the presence of an additional element of punctuation. In some taxonomic areas, it is routine to include chresonyms among the synonymy lists – an activity that leads to much confusion.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chresonym. Smith, H. M. and Smith, R.B. 1972. Chresonymy ex Synonymy. Systematic Zoology, 21: 445. (http://www.jstor.org/stable/2412440?origin=crossref)

    Classificationsearch for term

    The arrangement of taxa into a hierarchy that uses scientific names and usually includes ranks

    Codesearch for term

    Reference to a ‘code’ typically means one of the codes of nomenclature that governs the legitimacy of names. There are many different codes, but the primary ones are the codes for animals (ICZN), for plants and fungi (ICBN), for prokaryotes (ICNB).

    Code of Phytosociologial Nomenclaturesearch for term

    One of the less well known codes of nomenclature

    Colloquial namesearch for term

    A common or vernacular name for a taxon, a name that is not presented as a scientific name.

    CoLPsearch for term

    Catalog of Life Partnership: a project involving Species2000 and ITIS, building a comprehensive catalog of the species of Earth. Just a little over half-way there. http://www.catalogueoflife.orgCatalogue of Life icon, from http://www.catalogueoflife.org/

    Committee on Phylogenetic Nomenclaturesearch for term

    A committee of the International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature from which the Phylocode is derived.

    CPNsearch for term

    Committee on Phylogenetic Nomenclature - A committee of the International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature from which the Phylocode is derived.

    d
    Diagnosissearch for term

    A succinct statement of the attributes of a taxon when first published, some codes require the diagnosis to be in Latin.

    Disambiguationsearch for term

    The act of providing clarity of meaning to two or more terms that previously lacked clarity of meaning. In the case of names management, the primary use of disambiguation is to discriminate among the meanings of homonyns, names of different organisms but that are spelled identically.

    DOIssearch for term

    DOIs are persistent identifiers used, for example, by publishers for articles.  An explanation of the benefits was  given on the Taxacom ListServe by Rod Page and Donat Agosti.

     

    DOIs underpin stable citation linking in modern journals, and have several advantages over raw URLs.

    1. Every time they changed web site technology there was a good chance URLs to articles would change, breaking existing links. DOIs hide this using indirection (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indirection ).
    2. When publishers merge or are acquired (e.g., Wiley and Blackwell) the DOIs don't change, whereas the URLs to the articles do (publishers don't want their URLs "branded" with the names of former rivals that they have bought out). This means users can blissfully ignore who is publishing the content, the links "just work".
    3. If the list of literature cited on an article web page use URLs, then a publisher is effectively branding their content with URLs to rival publishers. DOIs "hide" this, making linking much more palatable to publishers.

    But the real benefits come from the services provided by CrossRef (http://www.crossref.org) that underlie DOIs. For example:

    1.   Given a DOI I can retrieve details about the publication (e.g., article title, journal, etc.). No more typing bibliographies. This service has spawned a whole ecosystem of bibliographic tools such as http://www.connotea.org, http://citeulike.org, http://www.zotero.org, and http://www.mendeley.com that make it easy to manage bibliographies online (these sites are also generating social networks of researchers on the back of this service).
    2.  Given article metadata I can find the DOI (if it exists). This service enables publishers to convert lists of papers cited to actionable links. It also enables sites such as Wikipedia to automatically convert citations into clickable links.

    But there is more. Given that when a publisher registers an article with CrossRef the publisher can submit a list of DOIs for the publications cited by that article, CrossRef can provide "forward linking", which means that for any article the publisher can list not only the papers cited, but who is citing that article. Imagine an article in Nature that cites a publication in, say, Zootaxa. At the moment, the Nature article has no link to the Zotaxa paper. The reader has to Google the paper. Furthermore, once they find the Zootaxa paper, the reader has no information on who has cited that paper. If I was a Zootaxa author, I'd love to know what papers were citing my work.

    Lastly, imagine if we had similar services for the other things we care about, such as taxonomic names and specimens. Services that gave us metadata about these things, as well as told us how they are inter-related (e.g., this name was published in this article, this specimen is the holotype for this name, etc.). In other words, something like CrossRef for biology. And: We need DOI, we need the Cross Ref for biodiversity. And we need to end to make us extract manually this information for the 17,000+ new taxa, plus about 50,000 redescriptions we produce each year.

    We need to stop wasting time correcting slightly to very wrong references,names, geographic names. Even we will not be able to imitate Google by doing all the extraction by machine, this has to be our goal. The goal has to be to offer the publishers DOIs or similar for our biodiversity heritage literature, all the names, collecting events, morphological terms, image and gene bank entries, etc. We need to build the respective databases as much as we need to come up with formats including all the necessary semantic enhancements as well as the links to external resources that are stable. The more of the external resources are at our fingertips, the less additional work it will be to use them. Similarly, if we have journal production work flows that include at the author level tools to embed all those links and enhancements, we avoid later on a great deal of waste by extracting the information. This, I think, is saving a huge amount of duplication and error production. Finally, only this opens the door of the huge body of knowledge to the wider audience and thus makes taxonomy a relevant science.

    And in case it is not evident, the role that Crossref plays in literature management can be achieved for biodiversity through GNUB

    DRUPALsearch for term

    An array of software tools that form a content management system. Being used to create the ScratchPads and LifeDesks environments for biological information management.

    DWCAsearch for term

    DarwinCore Archive, a draft standard that allows the transfer of information from one machine to another. It takes the form of a set of text files with a simple descriptor to provide information as to how the file is organized. Data files are arranged in a star-like manner, with one core data file surrounded by any number of ’extensions’. Each extension record (or ‘extension file row’) points to a record in the core file; in this way a DWCA package might contain a list of species as one file, to which is attached another file with occurrence information, or further files dealing with other types of information. This is GBIF’s preferred data exchange standard and is integrated with their IPT environment. http://www.gbif.org/informatics/standards-and-tools/publishing-data/data... http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/index.htm

    e
    EDITsearch for term

    EDIT icon: EDIT icon from http://www.e-taxonomy.eu/As they say: “ The European Distributed Institute of Taxonomy, a network of excellence gathering 28 major institutions devoted to knowing the living world better with the support of the European Commission. More information is available at http://www.e-taxonomy.eu/

    Electronic publicationsearch for term

    The publication in non-paper forms, most widely used for a web-site.

    Entitysearch for term

    A group of organisms, such as a taxon, but entity can also be used groups that may lack a formal name or rank

    EOLsearch for term

    EOL logo: Encyclopedia of Life logo, www.eol.orgThe Encyclopedia of Life – a project and web site (www.eol.org) to create a web page for every known species on Earth.

    Epithetsearch for term

    The second part of the latin binomial for species - the 'robur' of 'Banskia robur', it is mostly used in the context of botanical names.

    f
    Filtersearch for term

    To select a subset of. As an example, one list of names, say of marine species, may be used to select those names in another list for special treatment.

    Fossilssearch for term

    Organisms, parts of organisms, or the works of organisms that are no longer living and subject to gravity are associated with sediments. They include information about species that are no longer with us. The best estimate of the total number of described fossil species is about 250,000

    Fuzzy matchingsearch for term

    Refers to algorithms that detect lexical or spelling variations of a name. This is the kind of algorithm that lies behind ‘Did you mean …’ reactions of some search engines when a query is mistyped. Detail is provided at http://code.google.com/p/taxon-name-processing/wiki/TaxamatchInfo

    g
    GBIFsearch for term

    GBIF logo from www.gbif.orgThe Global Biodiversity Information Facility, supported via governments worldwide and co-ordinated through the United Nations to be a leading clearing house of biodiversity information. They say that GBIF enables free and open access to biodiversity data online to all and anyone, for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. GBIF provides three core services and products: 1. An information infrastructure – an Internet-based index of a globally distributed network of interoperable databases that contain primary biodiversity data – information on museum specimens, field observations of plants and animals in nature, and results from experiments – so that data holders across the world can access and share them 2. Community-developed tools, standards and protocols – the tools data providers need to format and share their data 3. Capacity-building – the training, access to international experts and mentoring programs that national and regional institutions need to become part of a decentralised network of biodiversity information facilities. Their logo is cute. They are at www.gbif.org

    Synonyms: Global Biodiversity Information Facility
    Global Names Indexsearch for term

    GNI logo: GNI logo, by permission GNAAn index of name strings in the broadest sense (including code-compliant scientific names, vernacular names, surrogates, and erroneous forms of names), with links to environments that have the names and to the associated data or metadata associated with names. GNI is a core element of the GNA. This is a rather raw list of names which, to become useful, have to be reconciled so that alternative names for the same entity are linked together, disambiguated so that identically spelled names for different entities can be discriminated, classified for navigation and to serve the needs of taxonomists, and flagged to indicate the status of the name.

    Global Names Interface for Taxonomic editing search for term

    GNITE – an interface that will allow individual taxonomists to improve the underlying names-based infrastructure. Through this interface (under development) taxonomists will be able to review the names that are known to GNA and add missing ones, they will be able to edit, correct and annotate names, they will be able to merge, split and edit reconciliation groups, they will be able to edit and improve disambiguation of homonyms and chresonyms, and they will be able to merge classifications, edit classifications nor create new classifications.

    Global Names Usage Bank search for term

    GNUB. An environment to record the occurrence of names in documents, databases, notes or other records. A large and central component of GNA. The usages will include all nomenclatural acts, making GNUB critical to nomenclators and emerging registration environments such as Zoobank. GNUB will index usages that help to clarify the meaning of each name and so contains resources that will be developed into taxonomic tools and services.

    GNAsearch for term

    An open-ended names-based cyberinfrastructure that will provide data and services to meet the needs of taxonomists, nomenclaturalists, and biodiversity informaticians. This is envisioned as a semantic environment comprised of modules interconnected by standards-compliant web services. It is being developed as an open and agile environment. For more information, globanames.org.

    Synonyms: Global names architecture
    GNIsearch for term

    The Global Names Index. An index of name strings in the broadest sense (including code-compliant scientific names, vernacular names, surrogates, and erroneous forms of names), with links to environments that have the names and to the associated data or metadata associated with names. GNI is a core element of the GNA. This is a rather raw list of names which, to become useful, have to be reconciled so that alternative names for the same entity are linked together, disambiguated so that identically spelled names for different entities can be discriminated, classified for navigation and to serve the needs of taxonomists, and flagged to indicate the status of the name.

    GNITEsearch for term

    The Global Names Interface for Taxonomic editing– an interface that will allow individual taxonomists to improve the underlying names based infrastructure. Through this interface (under development) taxonomists will be able to review the names that are known to GNA and add missing ones, they will be able to edit, correct and annotate names, they will be able to merge, split and edit reconciliation groups, they will be able to edit and improve disambiguation of homonyms and chresonyms, and they will be able to merge classifications, edit classifications nor create new classifications.

    Synonyms: Global names interface for taxonomic editing
    GNUBsearch for term

    Global Names Usage Bank – an environment to record the occurrence of names in documents, databases, notes or other records. A large and central component of GNA. The usages will include all nomenclatural acts, making GNUB critical to nomenclators and emerging registration environments such as Zoobank. GNUB will index usages that help to clarify the meaning of each name and so contains resources that will be developed into taxonomic tools and services.

    h
    Heterotypic search for term

    With different types (where types are reference material)

    Heterotypic synonymsearch for term

    Used for two code-compliant scientific names that are thought to refer to the same species. To be heterotypic (as opposed to homotypic) the names will have been created independently and used different type material. Homotypic synonyms are created when one worker is not aware of the work of others, when stages of a life cycle or genders are described as different species, or when a ‘lumper’ feels that a ‘splitter’ has divided a species too finely.

    Holotypesearch for term

    A single specimen (part or work of a specimen) that is used to anchor a taxonomic concept and its associated name. A holotype will usually be a dead organism that is preserved in a museum or herbarium. The holotype may be the only type material that is available or may be part of an array of type material. The role of the type is to unambiguously establish the intended meaning of a scientific name.

    Homonymssearch for term

    Two names spelled alike but referring to different organisms. Homonyms can occur within codes or between codes (when some people refer to them as hemihomonyms. The meanings of homonyms needs to be disambiguated if we are to understand what the name refers to. The authority information or context can often be sufficient. Tony Rees offers this example which is paraphrased and begins among the crabs: Duncania Portell & Collins, 2004 (Decapoda: Leucosiidae), may be listed as valid in De Grave et al., 2009, but that does not seem to take account of Duncania Koninck, 1872 (Cnidaria), nor Duncania Pourtalès, 1874 (Cnidaria), nor Duncania Bayle, 1879 (Mollusca) , nor even Duncania H.G.L. Reichenbach, 1828 which is a genus in flowering plants, but fortunately it is considered to be a synonym of Asaphes A. P. de Candolle 1825, although that also has its junior homonyms: - Asaphes K.P.J. Sprengel, 1827 (a plant) as well as Asaphes Walker, 1834, Asaphes Kirby, 1837 and Asaphes Turner, 1945 – all various animals. If all names were listed in one place, we could prevent the occurrence of new homonyms - the most complete listing of generic names is IRMNG (see glossary entry under IRMNG), through which it is estimated that one in 7 generic names is a homonym; and the most widely used generic name is Wagneria.  The concept of Homonyms is unpacked into numerous more exactly defined variants by Dubois (Dubois, A. 2012.  The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature.  Bionomina, 5: 57-80.)

    Some of the most egregious homonyms are listed here.

    Homotypic synonymssearch for term

    Kathablepharis by W J Lee with permissionRefers to different names for the same species, and have the same basionym. An example is: Leucocryptos remigera Vørs, 1992 and Kathablepharis remigera (Vørs, 1992) Clay & Krugens, 1999, or with an alternative spelling, Katablepharis remigera. Also referred to as an objective synonym or a nomenclatural synonym.

    Synonyms: Nomenclatural synonym, Objective synonyms
    i
    ICBNsearch for term

    International code of Botanical Nomenclature, the principles, rules and regulations that govern the formulation of the names of plants.
    McNeill J; Barrie FR; Burdet HM; Demoulin V; Hawksworth DL; Marhold K; Nicolson DH; Prado J; Silva PC; Skog JE; Wiersema JH; Turland NJ (eds) (2006) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. [Regnum Vegetabile no. 146.] Ruggell: A.R.G. Ganter Verlag.
    There are other codes for cultivated plamts and phytosociological nomenclature:
    Brickell CD, Baum BR; Hetterscheid WLA; Leslie AC; McNeill J; Trehane P; Vrugtman F; Wiersema JH (eds) (2004) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. 7th edn. [Acta Horticulturae no. 647; Regnum Vegetabile no. 144.] Leuven: International Society for Horticultural Science.
    Weber HE; Moravec J; Theurillat J-P (2000) International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. 3rd edition. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 739-768.

    ICNBsearch for term

    International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, now International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes Lapage, S. P., Sneath, P. H. A., Lessel, E. F., Skerman, V. B. D., Seeliger, H. P. R. & Clark, W. A. (editors) (1976).International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1975 Revision). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.

    ICNCPsearch for term

    International Code of (and Commission for the) Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants -
    Brickell CD, Baum BR; Hetterscheid WLA; Leslie AC; McNeill J; Trehane P; Vrugtman F; Wiersema JH (eds) (2004) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. 7th edn. [Acta Horticulturae no. 647; Regnum Vegetabile no. 144.] Leuven: International Society for Horticultural Science.

    ICNPsearch for term

    International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.

    ICTVsearch for term

    International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. It produces the International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature of ICTV. In: Virus Taxonomy: eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Fauquet CM; Mayo MA; Maniloff J; Desselberger U; Ball L; eds): 1209-1214. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.

    ICVCNsearch for term

    International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature of ICTV. In: Virus Taxonomy: eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Fauquet CM; Mayo MA; Maniloff J; Desselberger U; Ball L; eds): 1209-1214. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.

    ICZNsearch for term

    International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
    International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature [Ride WDL; Cogger HG; Dupuis C; Kraus O; Minelli A; Thompson FC; Tubbs PK (eds)] (1999) International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 4th edn. London: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

    The ICZN web site.

    IFsearch for term

    The Index Fungorum, the global fungal nomenclator coordinated and supported by the Index Fungorum Partnership, which aims to include all names proposed for fungi (including yeasts, lichens, chromistan fungi, protozoan fungi and fossil forms) since 1753 at species level and below. Index Fungorum web site.

    Index Bergeyanasearch for term

    A catalogue of bacterial names published in 1966; mostly rendered obsolete with subsequent revisions of the relevant code of nomenclature.

    Index Fungorumsearch for term

    The Index Fungorum, the global fungal nomenclator coordinated and supported by the Index Fungorum Partnership, which aims to include all names proposed for fungi (including yeasts, lichens, chromistan fungi, protozoan fungi and fossil forms) since 1753 at species level and below. Index Fungorum web site.

    Index Kewensissearch for term

    A catalogue of seed plant names at the rank of family and below published since 1753, prepared by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, which started publication in 1893, and also now includes ferns and fern allies; digitized in the International Plant Names Index (IPNI)

    Index Nominum Genericorum Plantarumsearch for term

    (or ING) -A catalogue of validly published names of genera in all groups of organisms covered by the botanical code; available online at http://botany.si.edu/ing/.

    INGsearch for term

    Index Nominum Genericorum – a catalogue of validly published names of genera in all groups of organisms covered by the botanical code; available online at http://botany.si.edu/ing/.

    International Code of Botanical Nomenclaturesearch for term

    (ICBN) International code of Botanical Nomenclature, the principles, rules and regulations that govern the formulation of the names of plants.
    McNeill J; Barrie FR; Burdet HM; Demoulin V; Hawksworth DL; Marhold K; Nicolson DH; Prado J; Silva PC; Skog JE; Wiersema JH; Turland NJ (eds) (2006) International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. [Regnum Vegetabile no. 146.] Ruggell: A.R.G. Ganter Verlag.

    International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plantssearch for term

    (ICNCP) International Code of (and Commission for the) Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants -
    Brickell CD, Baum BR; Hetterscheid WLA; Leslie AC; McNeill J; Trehane P; Vrugtman F; Wiersema JH (eds) (2004) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. 7th edn. [Acta Horticulturae no. 647; Regnum Vegetabile no. 144.] Leuven: International Society for Horticultural Science.

    International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria search for term

    (ICNB) International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria – the latest edition is Lapage et al., 1992. Lapage, S. P., Sneath, P. H. A., Lessel, E. F., Skerman, V. B. D., Seeliger, H. P. R. & Clark, W. A. (editors) (1976).International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (1975 Revision). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology. Applies to the Bacteria = Eubacteria + Archaebacteria, sets high standards inclusive of a requirement to have material in culture. As with the other codes, stability is achieved through the principle of priority. A good account of current practices, a list of currently named species, and reference material can be found at the DSMZ web site
    http://www.dsmz.de/microorganisms/main.php?contentleft_id=14

    International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotessearch for term

    (ICNP) the intended Code which will regulate the nomenclature of Archaea and Bacteria that will replace the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria

    International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclaturesearch for term

    (ICTV) International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature of ICTV. In: Virus Taxonomy: eighth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Fauquet CM; Mayo MA; Maniloff J; Desselberger U; Ball L; eds): 1209-1214. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.

    International Code of Zoological Nomenclaturesearch for term

    (ICZN) - the Code regulating the nomenclature of animals and organisms traditionally studied by zoologists (e.g. including Microspordia, which are now known to be fungi), prepared by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Online at http://www.iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp. Citable as: International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London.

    International Commission on the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plantssearch for term

    (ICNCP) International Code of (and Commission for the) Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants -
    Brickell CD, Baum BR; Hetterscheid WLA; Leslie AC; McNeill J; Trehane P; Vrugtman F; Wiersema JH (eds) (2004) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. 7th edn. [Acta Horticulturae no. 647; Regnum Vegetabile no. 144.] Leuven: International Society for Horticultural Science.

    International Commission on Zoological Nomenclaturesearch for term

    (ICZN) the editorial and regulatory body for zoological nomenclature, responsible for preparing the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

    International Committee for the Taxonomy of Fungi search for term

    A committee appointed to consider issues related to the taxonomy fungi, not concerned with formal proposals for the conservation and rejection of names.

    International Committee on Bionomenclaturesearch for term

    A committee originally established in 1994, and a scientific member of IUBS from 2009, comprising representatives of the different Codes and providing a forum for discussion and action on matters of common concern.

    International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotessearch for term

    A body appointed by the IUMS Division of Bacteriology at its international congresses. The ICSP, formerly the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB), is the body that oversees the nomenclature of prokaryotes, determines the rules by which prokaryotes are named and whose Judicial Commission issues Opinions concerning taxonomic matters, revisions to the Bacteriological Code, etc.

    International Plant Names Indexsearch for term

    IPNI) A database of the names and associated bibliographic information of all seed plants, ferns, and fern allies (http://www.ipni.org) produced through collaboration of the Australian National Herbarium, Harvard University Herbaria, and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    International Trust for Zoological Nomenclaturesearch for term

    A not for profit company founded in 1947 which acts on behalf of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to raise and administer funds.

    IPNIsearch for term

    International Plant Names Index, a database of the names and associated bibliographic information of all seed plants, ferns, and fern allies (http://www.ipni.org) produced through collaboration of the Australian National Herbarium, Harvard University Herbaria, and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

    IRMNGsearch for term

    Interim register of Marine and Non Marine genera, http://www.cmar.csiro.au/datacentre/irmng/; the most complete and organized list of genera of organisms - with (at the time of writing) 446,000 of the estimated 470,000 generic names; with annotations as to whether the taxa the names refer to are marine or non-marine, and whether they are still living or extinct. More  background is available at http://www.obis.org.au/irmng/irmng_faq/

    ITISsearch for term

    The ITIS mission is to create a scientifically credible database of taxonomic information, placing primary focus on taxa of interest to North America, with world treatments included, as available. http://www.itis.gov

    j
    Juniorsearch for term

    Used in relation to homonyms and synonyms, and identifies those names that, according to the appropriate code of nomenclature, should not prevail. The senior homonym / synonym is almost always the one that was formed first (i.e. the principle of priority is served). Junior is most widely used in the content of zoological nomenclature.

    Junior Synonymsearch for term

    Synonyms are two or more code-compliant names that are applied to the same taxon; the junior synonyms are those that should not prevail. The senior synonym is almost always the one that was formed first (i.e. the principle of priority is served). The term is most widely used in the content of zoological nomenclature.

    l
    Layeredsearch for term

    A design feature of an informatics architecture, refers to the separation of functions and services into various components that communicate with each other through APIs or other means. The approach creates an array of smaller environments that simplifies development and maintenance. More importantly, it allows some functions to be upgraded without having to re-engineer the complete structure. Layers might include a database layer in which information is held, a layer of tools that analyse the content of the database and feed information into a new data layer, and an interface that allows users access to the resulting product.

    Legitimate namesearch for term

    A botanical term that refers to a scientific name that was formulated in agreement with the rules of the Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

    Lexical variantsearch for term

    Alternative spellings and formulations of a name string. The example given below (thanks to Rich Pyle) is informative, and deals only with some of the variants, and ONLY with correctly formed and spelled variants. Lexical variants also include mis-spellings - such as Cyclotrachelus sodalus (LeConte)  or Cyclotrachelis sodalis (Le Conte)

    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeConte) Cyclotrachelus sodatus, provided by the Canadian Biodiversity information facility, used with permission.
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (Le Conte)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC.)
    • Cyclotrachelus (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (LeConte)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (Le Conte)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (LeC.)
    • Cyclotrachelus (E.) sodalis (LeC)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (Le Conte)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeC.)
    • Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeC)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeConte)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis(Le Conte)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC.)
    • C. (Evarthrus) sodalis (LeC)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (LeConte)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (Le Conte)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (LeC.)
    • C. (E.) sodalis (LeC)
    • C. sodalis (Le Conte, 1848)
    • C. sodalis (Le Conte 1848)
    • C. sodalis (Le Conte)
    • C. sodalis (LeC., 1848)
    • C. sodalis (LeC. 1848)
    • C. sodalis (LeC.)
    • C. sodalis (LeC)
    LifeDesksearch for term

    www.lifedesks.org; a content management system for biodiversity that allows taxonomists to create web sites for biodiversity without incurring the cost of developing the software. Hosted content is made semantically ready so that users can chose to make information openly available to other semanticized web-based biodiversity projects, such as the Encyclopedia of life. Being developed by EOL in concert with the EU EDIT scratchpads http://scratchpads.eu/about.

    n
    Namesearch for term

    In the context of GNA, a name is a string of one or more characters – with or without spaces –  that is used as a label for a taxonomic concept or other entity. Names may be scientific, vernacular, or surrogates; scientific names may be code-compliant or not. The precise sequence of all characters that make up a name is referred to as the ‘name-string’. Discrete parts of a name-string are name objects (such as the Genus name).

    Name objectsearch for term

    A component of a canonical name string. Homo sapiens has two name objects: "Homo" and "sapiens", a trinomial has 3. Annotations, punctuation, and authority information are not 'name objects'

    Name: code-compliantsearch for term

    A scientific name that meets all of the requirements of the appropriate code of nomenclature.)

    Name: scientificsearch for term

    A latinized name that is used to refer to a taxon. Some scientific names are regulated by the codes of nomenclature and are referred to as code-compliant, others (such as names of taxa above the rank of family) are not code-compliant.  

    Most scientific names are comprised of a single latinized word, but in the case of species, the scientific name is  made up of two words (Rattus norvegicus), Trinomials are formed when a subgenus or a subspecies is added to the species name.

    Codes of nomenclature differ in how they define the 'name"and the 'scientific name' of species.  The english glossary in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature refers to the species binomen as being comprised of two names; whereas the botanical convention is that the binomen is a name, and the species component of it is referred to as an epithet.

    Name: surrogatesearch for term

    A string of alphanumeric characters that refers to a taxon, but is neither a scientific name nor a vernacular name. Often a form of coding that is used to refer to a sample, a specimen, or a concept before it becomes well established. SAR11 was the name given to a bacterial clade and much was published on it, until later it was given a scientific name Pelagibacter ubique but as this was unfortunately not code-compliant it is currently referred to as Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique

    Name: Vernacularsearch for term

    A name for an organism or organisms in a language used for general purposes as opposed to a latinised scientific name; also referred to as common names, colloquial names or local names.

    Namestringsearch for term

    The precise sequence of all characters that are used as a name . There may be variations in the way that a name is expressed - “Feronia sodalis” and “Feronia sodalis LeConte 1848” are two of many possible name strings for the same scientific name.

    Nom. nov.search for term

    A new name. A term used when for some reason an existing name can no longer be used – for example it is discovered to be a junior homonym of a name that was introduced earlier for a different species.

    Nomenclatorsearch for term

    A compiler of names and opinions that provide information on the code-compliancy of the names. A definitive source of ‘correct’ names. The ‘Index Fungorum’ is the nomenclator for Fungi.

    Nomenclatural actsearch for term

    A statement in a publication that affects the nomenclatural status of a scientific name or its typification. These include the creation of the name (as a protonym) small subset of the TNUs represent Code-governed Acts (and, hence, the foundational units for nomenclators such as ZooBank and other zoological nomenclators, Index Fungorum, IPNI, etc.).

    Nomenclaturesearch for term

    That component of taxonomy that relates the legitimacy, formation, and stability of a latin name. The regulations are included in the various codes of nomenclature (see Codes of Nomenclature), and define what constitutes publication, the use of type material, the construction of names, and who trumps who when there is more than one code-compliant name for a taxon. The codes typically deal with taxa up to the rank of Family.

    Nominasearch for term

    An open-ended and occasional series of workshops used to develop ideas and components of the Global names architecture. Also means ‘names’.

    o
    Objective synonymsearch for term

    Also referred to as homotypic synony, refers to different names that refer to the same species, and have the same basionym. An example is: Leucocryptos remigera Vørs, 1992 andKathablepharis remigera (Vørs, 1992) Clay & Krugens, 1999, or with an alternative spelling, Katablepharis remigera. Also referred to as an objective synonym or a nomenclatural synonym.

    p
    p.p.search for term

    = pro parte, in part

    Parent:childsearch for term

    A structure of certain data files used to carry information about hierarchical relationships among entities. Parent:child structures can be used to represent the relationship of a species (the child) to the next most inclusive taxon (usually a genus). The computer files will usually contain numbers to represent the entities. A tree-path is the concatenation of treepaths to the ultimate parent.

    Parsingsearch for term

    (of a name) - a process of breaking a name into its component parts. This is detailed in http://code.google.com/p/taxon-name-processing/wiki/NameParsing, where the following example is given:

    PESIsearch for term

    The Pan European Species Directories Infrastructure. PESI provides standardised and authoritative taxonomic information by integrating and securing Europe’s taxonomically authoritative species name registers and nomenclators (name databases) and associated exper(tise) networks that underpin the management of biodiversity in Europe.
    http://www.eu-nomen.eu/pesi/

    Phylocodesearch for term

    A Code of biological nomenclature that uses phylogenetic principles to define clades (components of a phylogenetic tree and/or the taxa included within that component of the phylogenetic tree). The International Committee on Phylogenetic Nomenclature can be held responsible for this.Cantino PD; de Queiroz K (2009) PhyloCode: A Phylogenetic Code of Biological Nomenclature. Version 4c. http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/index/html. International Society for Phylogenetic Nomenclature.

    Phylogenetic treesearch for term

    Representation of evolutionary relationships (phylogeny) as a branching diagram or tree

    Phylogenysearch for term

    The evolutionary relationships among taxa; also misleadingly but widely used for dendrograms that are produced from analyses of data and are visualization tools that offer an interpretation of what the phylogeny was. ‘The’ phylogeny refers to the true ancestory descendent relationships, ‘a’ phylogeny refers to a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships.

    Polynomialsearch for term

    A name of a taxon that includes three or more separate words.

    Prioritysearch for term

    Refers to a principle that when names are in competition, normally the oldest (earliest established) name is the one that should be used.

    pro partesearch for term

    in part; refers to a part of a concept of one author, usually applied in situations where the author in question is deemed to have included more than one species in their concept, and it is necessary to point out that only a part of the description / scope is applicable.

    Protologuesearch for term

    A botanical terms that refers to everything associated with a name when it was first published in compliance with the prevailing code – such the description, diagnosis, phylogenetic definition, registration number, designation of type, illustrations, references, synonymy, geographical data, specimen citations, and comments.

    Protonymsearch for term

    Refers to the first ever appearance of an element of a code-compliant scientific name in a reference.  In the case of a species binomen, there will be two protonyms, one for the genus and the other for the species epithet.  There is a subtle distinction with basionym - which describes a protonym in the context of a new combination. Protonums help us to discriminate between identical species epithets -  as illustrated at http://www.globalnames.org/node/33576.

    Publicationsearch for term

    In the broad sense, any readable document or record, in a narrow sense refers to places in which names are ‘published’ (see published). Electronic publication refers to publication in non-paper forms, such as on a web-site.

    Publishedsearch for term

    A term that in the context of a nomenclatural code defines the conditions that need to be fulfilled when a name is first presented in order for that name to be recognised as a scientific name.

    r
    Rankssearch for term

    The levels within a hierarchical classification of organisms. There are seven principal categories: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. However, there are many intermediary ranks (such as subclasses, superfamilies, tribes, subspecies, varieties, etc. Over 90 ranks have been used.

    Reconciliationsearch for term

    A solution to the ‘many-names-for-one-taxon’ problem, as an alternative to seeking the use of a single preferred name, reconciliation seeks to identify all names that have been used together, group them together (in a reconciliation group) and flag or annotate those names that are preferred.

    Reconciliation groupsearch for term

    Reconciliation groups are used to address the ‘many-names-for-one-species’; a reconciliation group (RG) seeks to link together all names that have been used for a taxon. A query or other action initiates with one name can be extended to give a response involving some or all names. Names within groups can be annotated to show which are scientific, which are vernacular or surrogate names, to indicate nomenclatural status, etc. reconciliation involves grouping variant spellings (lexical variants) of all names, homotypic and heterotypic synonyms of scientific names, vernacular names, and surrogate names.

    Registrationsearch for term

    Used in the context of scientific names, the act of recording a name with a registration body. It is likely that future taxonomy will require registration of new names through one or more (co-ordinated) registration sites – such as Zoobank.

    s
    ScratchPadsearch for term

    http://scratchpads.eu/about: a DRUPAL-based content management system for biodiversity that allows taxonomists to create web sites for biodiversity without incurring the cost of developing the software. Supported through the European EDIT / Vibrant programs. Being developed in concert with the EOL LifeDesks system. www.lifedesks.org

    secsearch for term

    According to: as in Aus bus sec Smith 1955; means Aus bus as referred to or as interpreted by Smith in her 1955 article.  Sensu is similar, meaning 'in the sense of '. Derived from 'secundum'.

    Semanticizationsearch for term

    The design and implementation of information management systems with the goal of fostering the exchange of communication among computers. This has many components, such as the establishment of web services through which one machine may check another for information, the use of standard metadata so that machines know what category of information is being exchanged, unique identifiers to distinguish data and data providers, etc. It’s the future of computing, and always will be.

    Senior homonymsearch for term

    Of two homonyms within the context of a code of nomenclature, the one that continue to be used – typically the first to be established

    Senior synonym search for term

    Of two synonyms, the one that is to be used for the organism, typically the one that was created first

    Sensusearch for term

    In the sense of; usually used to point to one person's interpretation of a meaning.

    Sensu latosearch for term

    In a broad sense, often used in the context of lumping and splitting to refer to the more extensive concepts of a given taxon.

    Sensu strictosearch for term

    In a strict sense. often used in the context of lumping and splitting to refer to the most restrictive concepts of a given taxon.

    Species epithetsearch for term

    The second part of the binomial of a species name – the 'sapiens' of 'Homo sapiens'.

    Species2000search for term

    An organization that is compiling a list of the species on Earth.

    Splittersearch for term

    Refers to a taxonomist who favors taxa that are very narrowly defined – that is they tend to split taxa up. Splitters create infrasubspecific taxa. Splitters stand in contrast to lumpers

    Standardssearch for term

    Information standards are agreed conventions by which information can be organised. Standards are important to machine-to-machine dialog, allowing one machine to release information in a way that other machines can understand. Semanticization is dependent on standards. The primary body developing standards for biology is TDWG, but many other projects have developed in-house standards.

    Subjective synonymsearch for term

    (also = heterotypic synonym) a term used for two code-compliant scientific names that are thought to refer to the same species. To be heterotypic (as opposed to homotypic) the names will have been created independently and used different type material. Homotypic synonyms are created when one worker is not aware of the work of others, when stages of a life cycle or genders are described as different species, or when a ‘lumper’ feels that a ‘splitter’ has divided a species too finely.

    Surrogate namesearch for term

    A string of alphanumeric characters that refers to a taxon, but is neither a scientific name nor a vernacular name. Often a form of coding that is used to refer to a sample, a specimen, or a concept before it becomes well established. SAR11 was the name given to a bacterial clade and much was published on it, until later it was given a scientific name Pelagibacter ubique but as this was unfortunately not code-compliant it is currently referred to as Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique

    Synonymsearch for term

    One of two or more code-compliant scientific names that are thought to refer to the same species. There are objective (homotypic) and subjective (heterotypic) synonyms, and junior and senior synonyms.

    Synonym, heterotypicsearch for term

    (also = subjective synonym) – a term used for two code-compliant scientific names that are thought to refer to the same species. To be heterotypic (as opposed to homotypic) the names will have been created independently and used different type material. Homotypic synonyms are created when one worker is not aware of the work of others, when stages of a life cycle or genders are described as different species, or when a ‘lumper’ feels that a ‘splitter’ has divided a species too finely.

    Synonym, homotypicsearch for term

    (Also referred to as objective synonym) - refers to different names that refer to the same species, and have the same basionym. An example is: Leucocryptos remigera Vørs, 1992 andKathablepharis remigera (Vørs, 1992) Clay & Krugens, 1999, or with an alternative spelling, Katablepharis remigera. Also referred to as an objective synonym or a nomenclatural synonym.

    Synonym, objectivesearch for term

    Refers to different names that refer to the same species, and have the same basionym.   There are subtle differences between the botanical and zoological codes as to what is covered; but an example is: Leucocryptos remigera Vørs, 1992 and Kathablepharis remigera (Vørs, 1992) Clay & Krugens, 1999, or with an alternative spelling, Katablepharis remigera. Also referred to as an objective synonym or a nomenclatural synonym.

    A more careful consideration by Thomas Pape is: The ICodeZN glossary contains a definition: "objective synonym --- Each of two or more synonyms that denote nominal taxa with the same name-bearing type, or (in the cases of family-group and genus-group taxa) that denote nominal taxa with name-bearing types whose own names are themselves objectively synonymous."  In other words, the objectivity relates to one and the same exemplar or individual being the name-bearing type. As for synonym, this is defined as:"synonym, n. --- Each of two or more names of the same rank used to denote the same taxonomic taxon."Take note of the "two or more names", but be careful with the concept of a "name" at the species level, as this easily creates confusion. The ICodeZN clearly defines a "specific name" as: "The second name in a binomen and in a trinomen". Therefore, given Aus bus Smith, 1900 and Cus bus (Smith, 1900) with the same original description, the specific name "bus" is one and the same specific name and as such there is no synonymy (no "two or more names"). But, as two different scientific names of the same taxonomic species-group taxon, "Aus bus" and "Cus bus" are synonyms.

     

    Synonym, subjectivesearch for term

    (also = heterotypic synonym) a term used for two code-compliant scientific names that are thought to refer to the same species. To be heterotypic (as opposed to homotypic) the names will have been created independently and used different type material. Homotypic synonyms are created when one worker is not aware of the work of others, when stages of a life cycle or genders are described as different species, or when a ‘lumper’ feels that a ‘splitter’ has divided a species too finely.

    Systematicssearch for term

    That component of the discipline of taxonomy that relates to the arrangement of taxa , normally within hierarchies or classifications

    t
    Tautonymsearch for term

    A species name in which the same word-strong is used for both the genus and species name: Bison bison. Permitted for animals but not for plants. Leaves an opening for Etcetera etcetera.

    Taxonsearch for term

    A formally named group of organisms, with a name and a rank. Ranges from those infrasubspecific taxa, through the usual players of species, genus, family, class, and order and things in between, up to Kingdom and even beyond.

    Taxon Name Usagesearch for term

    Taxon (or taxonomic) name usage (TNU) is an occurrence of a taxon name in any form, usually they are made in publications, but the concept includes usages databases, personal correspondence, field notebooks, etc. Usages may include nomenclatural acts that relate to the application of the appropriate code, or taxonomic acts that bear on the identity of the taxon labeled with the name.

    Taxonomic intelligencesearch for term

    The explicit inclusion of taxonomic thinking within the design of data bases, algorithms, and services. Taxonomic thinking includes an understanding of nomenclatural regulations, the sources of the many-names-for-one-species and the one-name-for-many-specie problems, the reasons for laternative classifications and the nature of taxonomic concepts.

    Taxonomic synonymsearch for term

    An alternative term for heterotypic synonyms

    TDWGsearch for term

    Biodiversity information Standards, the new name for an organization that was referred to as TadWig (Taxonomic DataBases working Group) – the source of many initial standards for biodiversity information transfer. They are Image provided by http://www.tdwg.org/.They tell us that their mission is to:

    • Develop, adopt and promote standards and guidelines for the recording and exchange of data about organisms

    • Promote the use of standards through the most appropriate and effective means and

    • Act as a forum for discussion through holding meetings and through publications

    TNUsearch for term

    Taxon (or taxonomic) name usage (TNU) is an occurrence of a taxon name in any form, usually they are made in publications, but the concept includes usages databases, personal correspondence, field notebooks, etc. Usages may include nomenclatural acts that relate to the application of the appropriate code, or taxonomic acts that bear on the identity of the taxon labeled with the name.

    Trinomial namesearch for term

    A latin name with three parts, such as happens when a subgenus is included within a name, or when a subspecies is included. An example is Bison (Bison) bison (genus (subgenus) species, or Bison bison bison (Genus, species subspecies) which means there is also a Bison (bison) bison bison.

    Type materialsearch for term

    The specimens and other elements used by an author in the original description of a new species or subspecific taxon

    Type specimensearch for term

    A single specimen which acts as the defining reference point for the application of a name of a species or an infraspecific taxon. Type specimens are usually retained within Museums and herbaria.

    u
    Uninomialsearch for term

    A scientific name comprised of a single name string, such as a genus name (e.g. Zyzzyzus Stechow, 1921).

    Usagesearch for term

    The association of appearances of a name within a document.  If Smith (1955) published an article on Aus bus, and mentioned the name "Aus bus" 14 times within the article (i.e. there are 14 appearances of the binomial), then there would be three usages - "Aus in Smith 1955", "bus in Smith 1955", and (arguably) "Aus bus in Smith 1955".  The combination of the name and the reference is a chresonym.  In the event that the usages bears on the identity of the taxon, these usages may also be referred to as "Aus sec Smith 1955" or "Aus bus sensu Smith 1955".

    v
    Valid namesearch for term

    A term used by zoologists and virologists to refer to a code-compliant name of an animal.

    Vernacular namesearch for term

    A name for an organism or organisms in a language used for general purposes as opposed to a latinised scientific name; also referred to a common names, colloquial names or local names.

    z
    Zoobanksearch for term

    Online register for names of animal, part of the activities of the International Commission of Zoological nomenclature. http: //zoobank.org

    Zoological Commissionsearch for term

    International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, received petitions to set aside the rules of the code because of exceptional circumstances or to otherwise clarify or stabilize the meaning of a name.